Missouri's Little Dixie

 

 

Slave Housing in Missouri's Little Dixie  

 

A Partial List of Little Dixie Plantations and/or Houses with Slave Quarters

 

Listed on these pages are those Missouri Little Dixie farms, plantation estates, and town houses (the largest are a "Villa") that are known to have had or still have slave quarters. 

Estates where owners enslaved 20 African Americans or more are denoted as a “plantation,“ which is the accepted criteria used by most historians.  Slave populations are also listed and are those reported by the owners for the census of 1850 and 1860.  Some of the slave populations are those given in court documents or from family histories.   

A few of the sites have been given the designation “plantation” based upon their acreage size, a second criteria used by modern scholars.  Some of the Little Dixie plantations had slave populations of only 15 to 19 slaves, but their acreage either met or exceeded the standard measure of 500 acres or more.  These slave entrenched farms were almost always built in the traditional plantation plan, which utilizes the "plantation block plan" used throughout the Upper South.  Sites that are between 15 and 19 slaves where evidence supports a traditional plantation estate, are denoted by an aterisk or "star" symbol (*).     

All of Little Dixie's slave housing was built in one of the traditional Southern slave housing architectural forms, which include the one room cabin, double  room quarter, multi room barracks quarter, or as an attached separate quarters on the master's house.  Materials used and building technique vary, but over all they are all built with rooms that are 15 to 20 feet square or nearly square.  These slave spaces averaged between 225 to 400 feet of living space per room.  Evidence does support that in those counties or areas in Little Dixie where cash crop agriculture dominated, such as the production of tobacco, hemp, and cotton, the average number of slaves per structure increased.  For example, in Clay County 4.3 slaves lived in each slave house while in hemp entrenched Saline County nearly 6 slaves lived in each building.  In some locations in Little Dixie, as many as 9 to 12 slaves or more were housed in a single unit.

Little Dixie's 17 county region was also where the State's largest slave populations lived, along with its largest percentage of "large" slave owners and land owners.  For instance, Little Dixie county slave populations varied between 15% and 36%, as compared with the Missouri's average 10%.  In some townships where cash crops were important, slave populations varied between 20% and 50%.  It is also in Little Dixie where Missouri's largest slave owners lived, for instance 62% of Missouri's slave owners with 20 to 30 slaves lived in Little Dixie.  When looking at the State's largest slaves owners, or those who had 70 to 100 slaves and owners who had 100 to 200 slaves, 50% and 75% of these slave owners were located in Little Dixie.  Likewise, Missouri's largest land owners were also located in Little Dixie.  For instance, 61.4% of Missouri's land owners with 500 - 1000 acres were all located in Little Dixie.  For those Missouri land owners with 1000 acres or more, 55.8% of those were located in Little Dixie. 

Over the last several decades, many of Little Dixie's slave dwellings have been destroyed or are falling into disrepair.  For these sites which are  known to be abandoned, or in neglect I have assigned them as “endangered.”  It is possible that changes to these sites have taken place since these pages were written and published.  Some slave buildings have been faithfully restored by their current owners and are in excellent condition.  For these owners we should commend them for saving these important historical sites.  

 

 

Plantation and Slave Housing Listed By County

 

Audrain County

John P. Clark mansion, "Graceland" - big house, 2 slaves in 1850 and 1 in 1860 

Audrain County Historical Society, owners of "Graceland"

http://www.audrain.org/visitus_museum.html

 

 

Boone County

David Guitar Town Villa, endangered - big house, slave quarters (6 slaves in 1860), and other period outbuildings

Greenwood & Maplewood Plantations (Lenoir Family) - (2) big houses, slave quarters, and other period outbuildings (Greenwood:  23 slaves in 1830s, 19 slaves in 1840, 27 in 1850, 18 slaves in 1860 living in 3 slave houses.)

Gordon Manor, demolished after a fire c. 1990s - big house, Gordon Sr. brought his family, 26  slaves and other personal property from Kentucky and began building this beautiful Classical Revival mansion c. 1820s

Judge Hiram Phillips farm - big house and 2 slave quarters (all demolished), 11 slaves in 1860

Haydon Plantation, endangered, Ashland - big house (14 slaves in 1850 and 21 slaves in 1860)

William B Hunt farm - big house, Hunt and his mother owned 12 slaves

Forrest Hill Plantation, Bass home, demolished for new highway c. 1970s - big house, slave quarters, and other period buildings (Eli Bass's father arrived in Boone County with 20 slaves and began building his large estate that was Forrest Hill.  After his death Eli owned the plantation along with 56 slaves living in 9 slave houses.) 

Smith (Plantation), Ashland area - big house, slave quarters (slave quarters demolished)

Haden Plantation, endangered, Columbia - big house, slave quarters (20 slaves in 1860)

James Rollins Plantation, "La Grange," Columbia - big house and 7 slave quarters (all demolished).  Rollins owned 34 slaves in 1860. 

James L. Stephens "Villa," Columbia - big house and slave quarters for 8 slaves (all destroyed, original house and 180 acres location was on East Broadway)

"Eagle's Nest," Italianate Villa of General Odon Guitar - big house with attached quarters, owned 7 slaves in 1860

Dr. William McClure farm, later known as the "Model Farm" in the 1870s under the ownership of his son-in-law John W. Harris - big house, 1 slave quarter, all demolished  (McClure owned 9 slaves on this 300 acres estate in 1850, and after selling it to Harris in 1855 he owned 6 slaves in 1860.)

McClure's farm as it appeared in the 1870s. 

 

"Old Homestead," Austin Bradford Plantation, near Rockbridge State Park, Columbia - brick big house, slave quarters, and outbuildings, all demolished.  (Bradford owned 31 slaves in 1850 and 35 slaves in 1860)

This plantation is located in section 32/33, Township 48 Range 12, near 63 Hwy and Ponderosa Street, not far from Nifong Park.  According to the 1882 Boone County history, page 618, it is on this plantation farm where the Little Bonne Femme sank and later emerged from a cave at Rockbridge Mill (State Park).

Rock Bridge State Park, Columbia, Boone County, Missouri 

http://www.mostateparks.com/rockbridge.htm

 

Moses Payne (Plantation), Rocheport - big house (1850 owned 8 slaves and by 1860 he held 16 slaves.) 

Moses Payne was in the cotton trade, owning a cotton mill in Montgomery County, Missouri.  (See "The History of the Cotton Culture of Central Missouri")  He and his brothers also owned and operated other cotton related businesses in the Delta deep south.  Payne also bred the famous Missouri mules on his plantation, which were shipped down River to the Deep South for the large cotton and sugar cane plantations.  Moses Payne's brother "Jacob," who left Boone County for New Orleans, became very wealthy from his cotton trade and built a fine Greek Revival mansion on First Street in the famed "Garden District."  It was at this Boone County cotton industrialist's house in New Orleans that the once Confederate leader Jefferson Davis died in 1889 with his daughter Varina at his side.  Jacob Payne was a long time friend of the Davis family.    

See New Orleans Walking Tour at: http://www.frommers.com/destinations/neworleans/0020020034.html

 

Callaway County

Holman Farm (1830s) - big house and slave quarters (demolished), 720 acres in 1850 

1830- 2 slaves

1840- 2 slaves

1850- 6 slaves 

The 1820s Holloman House with attached slave quarter and summer kitchen,

located on Ham's Prairie in Callaway County, Missouri. 

The house has survived, but not the slave quarter and summer kitchen. 

 

Robert M. Craghead Plantation, built c. 1820 - big house (demolished) - big house and slave quarters, (in 1840 he owned 21 slaves and in 1850 the estate had 22 slaves)  

Robert Newsom farm - big house and slave quarters, 1 brick quarters for a slave named "Celia," Newsom owned 8 slaves by his death in 1855.

Located south of Fulton, and not far from the Craghead plantation, this large 800 acre estate was the site of the shocking murder of Robert Newsom by his slave Celia.  The slave, Celia, was purchased by Newsom as his concubine and was pregnant with a third child at the time of Newsom's murder.  For more information on this true story, read the book "Celia A Slave," by Melton A. McLaurin.  

"Hockaday Hill," Irvine and John Augustus Hockaday - old homestead demolished and only John's big house stands today.

Irvine Hockaday patented 817 acres from 1826 to 1831 and owned 3 slaves in both 1830 and 1840.  By 1850, he owned 6 slaves and John, his son, owned one.  By 1860, Irvine owned some $29,000 in personal property and real estate.  John in 1860 owned $2,500 in personal property,  which was mostly the value of his 7 slaves.  Since his father did not own any slaves in 1860, it is assumed that the 7 slaves were derived from his father and himself.  John's impressive early 1860s Italianate house still stands on "Hockaday Hill" in Fulton, Missouri.   

       

Judge Irvine O. Hockaday's 1820s big house.  (demolished) 

 

Cass County  (technically not a part of Little Dixie, but certainly a "fringe" county) 

Brown Plantation - big house, slave quarters, and other period outbuildings (29 slaves in 1860 on 2,000 acres)

 

Chariton County

Herring Villa - big house, slave quarters, and other period outbuildings

Locust Hill Plantation - big house, slave quarters, and other period outbuildings

 

Clay County

(See Slavery In Clay County, Missouri)

Price Plantation - Fishing River Township 

 

Cooper County

Pleasant Green Plantation - big house, slave quarters, and other period outbuildings (30 slaves on a 13,000 acre plantation, in all the Walker family owned 61 slaves on several estates with 10 slave houses)

Hughes Plantation - big house, slave quarters, and other period outbuildings

Prairie View (Plantation), (house burned 2008) - big house, slave quarters, and other period outbuildings (19 slaves in 1860 living in 4 slaves houses on a 4,600 acre plantation)

Stephens House - big house and  slave quarters (8 slaves in 1860)

Robert D. Perry House and Slave Quarters - 4 slaves in 1850 and 6 slaves living in 2 slaves houses in 1860 

Eminence (Nelson farm) - big house and slave quarters/tenement house (6 slaves in 1860)

 

Howard County

Greenwood Plantation - big house, slave quarters, and other period outbuildings (30 slaves living in 4 slaves houses on a 1,000 acre hemp plantation)

Oakwood Plantation - big house (1830s), slave quarters (1830s and 1850s), and other period outbuildings (15 slaves  living in 3 slave houses in 1860 on a 500 acre plantation )

Swinney Family Plantations, all demolished - c. 1840s Hazel Ridge Plantation, c. 1830s Sylvan Villa Plantation, 1860 James O. Swinney "Villa" Plantation  (Sylvan Villa was a tobacco plantation and manufacturer with 69 slaves working the large estate and tobacco factory.  The family owned several tobacco factories throughout the Little Dixie Region.  James O. Swinney, son of Captain Swinney who owned nearby Sylvan Villa, built his large 38 room mansion in 1859-60.  Hazel Ridge was a large plantation mansion and slave cabins built. c. 1840s by John T. Cleveland and was purchased William Morrison, son-law of the Captain Swinney.  Cleveland was an early Missouri and Boonslick pioneer who married into the wealthy slave owning family of William Hughes.  His wife's family is said to have migrated to Missouri from Kentucky with a large amount of cash, property, and some 60 slaves.  Cleveland, who received his plantation as a gift from William Hughes, was a prosperous hemp planter and held some 10 slaves in 1850 and owned an additional land and estate in Texas.  During the Civil War, Cleveland left the battle weary countryside of Glasgow and moved to his new mansion in Texas.  He sold his beloved plantation "Hazel Ridge" to the Swinney family, Mr. Morrison.) 

Fruitage Farm Plantation, Hardeman - razed

Lilac Hill (Alfred Morrison (Plantation)) - big house, slave quarters, and other period outbuildings

Hughes Plantation "Plum Grove" - big house (1820s-30s), slave quarters, and other period outbuildings (22 slaves and 905 acres in 1850 and 20 slaves in 4 slave house on 600 acres in 1860)

Wilcoxson Plantation (endangered) - big house, slave quarters, and other period outbuildings

Cedar Grove (Nicholas Amick-Kingsbury) (Plantation) - big house, slave quarters, and other period outbuildings

Hickman Plantation - big house (c. 1820s)

http://aes.missouri.edu/harc/research/hickman.stm

Edwards Farm - big house

Nicholas S. Burckhardt Plantation (demolished) - big house, slave quarters, and other period outbuildings (c. 1820s)

Cedar Grove Plantation (Payne) - big house, slave quarters (1 brick quarters rebuilt, several others razed), and other period outbuildings  

Kingsbury Farm - big house (1820s)

Scott/Kingsbury Farm - big house (1810s)

Glen Eden Plantation - big house

Glen Eden Plantation (Lewis), Glasgow, demolished - big house, slave quarters, and other outbuildings, including tobacco plantation/manufacturing buildings for the Lewis Tobacco Works  (55 slaves living in 12 slave houses)

Cedar Lawn Farm (Jackson Prior) - big house

Confederate Governor C. F. Jackson Plantation - big house, slave quarters, and other period outbuildings

James/Congreve Jackson Plantation (endangered or demolished) - big house (c. 1820s and 1840s addition)

Thorn Hill (Cockerill) Plantation - big house, slave quarters, and other period outbuildings

Redstone (Pitts) Plantation - big house, slave quarters, and other period outbuildings

Boscobel "Villa" - big house and slave quarters

Page/Morehead Plantation - big house

Talton - Turner Plantation - big house

 

Jackson County

Alonzo F. Henley farm - big house, owned 12 slaves living in 2 slave houses in 1860

Overfelt/Chrisman Gothic Cottage - William Chrisman a lawyer and slave dealer, owned 3 slaves in 1850 and in 1860 4 slaves; John A. Overfelt owned 1 slave in 1850 and 6 slaves in 1860 

Smallwood Noland Plantation - 1840 owned 10 slaves and in 1850's he owned 26 slaves

Benjamin F. Thomson (Thompson) Farm (Plantation)  - big house, owned 4 slaves in 1850 and 7 slaves in 1860 and all living in one slave house (destroyed)

 

 

This beautiful Greek Revival "big house" was built by Benjamin F. Thomson in c. 1855 on his large farm in rural Jackson County, present day Independence, Missouri.  Like most slave owners of the Upper South, Thomson was an active leader in his community.  Prior to his death in 1861, Benjamin served as the Jackson County Sherriff for two terms and in the Missouri General Assembly.  He was also an active member of the pre-Civil War "Jackson County Agricultural and Mechanical Association" and among those who were on the first organized school board in the County.   

 

Reuben Wallace House - big house, owned 2 slaves in 1850 and 3 slaves in 1860

William McCoy and Samuel C. Owens House - big house, owned 3 slaves in 1860

John Lewis House (primary residence 1853 - 1855 at West Mill ) - big house, owned 5 slaves in 1850

Lewis Jones House - big House, 11 slaves in 1850 and 4 slaves in 1860

John B. Wornall Farm - big house, 500 acres and 5 slaves 

Alexander Majors Farm - big house, owned 7 slaves in 1850 and 1860  

Colonel John Harris House, Westport - big house, owned 15 slaves in 1860

Harry Younger (Plantation) dismantled - big house, 6 slaves in 1850 (Home of Cole Younger, of the James - Younger Gang of Western Missouri.) 

Charles Younger Plantation, father of Henry, destroyed - owned 36 slaves in 1850 

Archibald Rice Plantation, Raytown - big house, reassembled slave quarters known as "Aunt Sophie's Cabin," 20 slaves on 480 acres in 1840, 21 slaves in 1849, 16 slaves on 1,000 acres in 1850, 13 slaves on 631 acres and owned by his son E. C. Rice) 

 

Lafayette County

Anderson Plantation - big house, foundation of slave quarters and other period outbuildings (40 slaves on this hemp manufacturing plantation with a one 2-story slave quarters and another slave quarters, hemp warehouse and hemp rope factory)

Located at the "Battle of Lexington State Park"

http://www.mostateparks.com/lexington/

Plantation House

http://www.mostateparks.com/lexington/andhouse.htm

Colonel Oliver Anderson, owner of the Anderson Plantation and hemp manufacturing.

http://www.mostateparks.com/lexington/oliveranderson.htm

Battle of Lexington

http://www.mostateparks.com/lexington/battle.htm

 

Hicklin Hearthstone Plantation - big house, overseers house, slave quarters, and other period outbuildings.  Hicklin was a slave trader and held some 33 slaves in 1850 on 860 acres.  In 1860, he had 36 slaves on 600 acres plantation and by the end of Civil War 63 salves.  

Russell/Reinhard House - big house and slave quarters (4 slave in 1850 and 7 slaves in 1860)

Old Oaks, Slusher House - big house, slave quarters (razed 2007), and other period outbuildings

Linwood Lawn - big house and other period outbuildings

George W. Corder (Plantation), destroyed - 725 acre hemp plantation with 13 slaves

Jackson Corder (Plantation), destroyed - 800 acre hemp plantation with 11 slaves

Nathan Corder Plantation, destroyed - 2,350 acres in 1849 with 25 slaves (estate divided by 1860 among his sons, George and Jackson)

Thomas Shelby Plantation destroyed - 41 slaves on 1,580 acre hemp plantation

William Shelby Plantation destroyed c. 1990s by fire - 1000 acre hemp plantation with 70 slaves in 1850 and 86 slaves in 1860.  In 1860, William owned 9 slave houses.   

Hanson Chadwick "Villa" - big house and slave quarters, in 1850 he owned 7 slaves

 

Platte County

Chevis Tavern, removed to Missouri Town 1855, Jackson County - big house and slave quarters

Israel Link "Villa" - big house, attached quarters

Israel Link, builder of the Link “Villa” at Linkville, Platte County, Missouri, was born in Bourbon County, Kentucky, in 1803.  Israel was the son of Jacob and Elizabeth (Creager) Link, who migrated to Kentucky from their native Maryland.  Israel was one of ten children, of whom several would later migrate to Missouri.   

Israel married Elizabeth C. Hufford, of Scott County, Kentucky, on March 16, 1826.  The Links had three children that survived: David Jacob, Sarah E., and Eli Jackson.  In 1840, the family, which included 2 slaves (1840 Federal Census), removed from Kentucky and located in Clay County, Missouri.  They later resettled in Platte County in 1842 at Second Creek.  In the spring of 1846, Israel Link patented 320 acres, which became the Link farm and settlement known as “Linkville.”  The old Link homestead is believed to have been built in 1847.  The brick “big house” Link mansion is representative of those Southern styled homes of the Little Dixie region, built by slave owning farmers and planter who migrated there from the Upper South. 

 By 1850, Israel was a substantial farmer and owned $6,300 in real estate and 4 slaves.  His two sons, who also lived on the farm, owned 2 slaves.  In that same year son David went west in the great migration to the California gold fields, but returned home in a year. 

 By 1860, Israel and his son’s position and wealth had greatly increased.  Israel’s value of real estate was a substantial $9,000, with an additional $4,000 in personal property.  His property included his 5 slaves living in one slave house.  David owned $6,000 in real estate and $3,500 in personal property, and included 3 slaves.  Nearby was Israel’s brother, Eli, who also owned 5 slaves living in 1 slave house.  Brother Eli, owned a total of $18,000 in personal real estate and property.  Also living at the Israel Link home was two farm laborers and a portrait painter from New York. 

 When the War Between the States was declared in 1861, David J. Link answered pro-South Missouri Governor Jackson’s call and enlisted to protect Missouri from Federal and Northern invaders.  David subsequently was incorporated into regular Confederate Service along with other Missouri State Guard.  David was in both the infantry and cavalry, and is known to have fought at the “Battle of the Hemp Bales” at Lexington and in the Battle at Sugar Creek, Missouri, and Little Rock, Arkansas.  Towards the end of the war, he was in the Confederate quartermaster’s department.  When the Civil War ended, David returned home.  David was also a master Mason in Platte County.  In 1885, David served a year in the Federal office of Farmer instructing the Indians of West in agriculture. 

 By 1870, Israel and his wife Elizabeth’s wealth had increased despite the tragedy of Civil War, which ravaged much of Western Missouri.  In that year the Links owned some $11,000 in real estate and $3,500 in personal property.  Living at the Link home was Israel and his wife Elizabeth, as well as his daughter and her husband and their children.  Also living in the home were 3 farm hands and an African American domestic servant and her daughter.  Aggie, the Links servant, was said to be the family’s “Mammy” and one of their slaves from before the War.  Aggie and her children, one of which was Fannie, lived in the summer kitchen slave quarter.  The slave quarter is believed to be the original brick addition to the back of the house.  This square brick slave quarter addition did not originally have access to the main part of the Link home and was accessed by a side porch on the east side of the back “ell.”  It was typical for attached quarters in Little Dixie, Missouri, not to have interior access to the master’s quarters.     

 In 1879, Israel Link died at his home in Linkville and is buried in the Second Creek cemetery near there.  Elizabeth Link, his wife, died seven years before him in 1872.  The Link “Villa” and farm remained in the family until 1931, when it was sold. 

 

Miller Plantation - (remains of site located on property owned by KCI airport)

Lutes Plantation - big house

Beaumont Plantation - big house

Jacob Cox Plantation - big house

Warren Calvert/Price Stark Plantation - big house

"Locust Grove" Lewis Pence (Plantation) - 330 acres and 10 slaves, big house    

 

Ray County

"Easthill" Dr. Thomas Allen Plantation - big house

"Menefee House - big house, slave quarter destroyed (c. 1990s)

John Elliot Plantation - big house

"Hillcrest" George C. Keyes - big house

"Squire Thomas Baber" home - big house and slave quarters  

Isaiah Mansur Farm - big house and slave quarters (4 slaves in 1847 on 480 acres)

 

Saline County

O'Bannon Plantation, razed 2008 - big house

For history, see  1850s Minor W. & Elizabeth O’Bannon Plantation

Oak Grove (Plantation) - big house, slave quarters (razed), and other period buildings (13 slaves in 3 slaves houses in 1860, hemp plantation)

 

Oak Grove in the 1870s, big house, 2 room slave quarters, smoke house, and other outbuildings.  Only the big house and smoke house have survived.

 

Prairie Park Plantation - big house, slave quarters, and other period outbuildings, garconniere - razed. 

 

Lo Mismo Plantation - big house and other period outbuildings

Lo Mismo Plantation was built by planter John Locke Hardeman, c. 1844, near Arrow Rock, Saline County, Missouri.  An enterprising agrarian, by 1849 Hardeman had purchased 1,193 acres in Saline and Pettis Counties and owned 31 slaves.  Prior to building his large full-Georgian big house, Hardeman had lands investments in Saline County and also the Mississippi.   John used the opportunity of traveling between his estates from the Upper South to the Lower South and sold slave, taking 16 Missouri slaves South in 1836 and selling them along the way.  Due to the depression of the late 1830s, Mr. Hardeman sold his Mississippi interests in 1841.  Concentrating on his mid-Missouri enterprises, the wealthy planter by the late 1850s owned 2,000 acres in Saline County with an additional 1,000 in Pettis and Howard Counties.  He was not only credited as one of the County's leading hemp growers, but also with being an inventor who patented both a hemp break and reaper. 

 

William T. Gilliam Plantation, "Longview" plantation - big house, other slave era buildings (demolished)

This is an image of the 1860 Slave Census for William T. Gilliam, owner of Longview Plantation, in Saline County, Missouri.  In 1860, Gilliam owned 50 slaves living in 6 slave houses.  Below is an image of the plantation as it appeared in the 1870s.  In this image are the large big house mansion, office, summer kitchen/slave quarters, smoke house, other farm related buildings, and a two room "saddle bag" slave quarters just beyond the big house fence.  Gilliam was a diversified tobacco planter, as well as a local banker and owner of a grain mill.  He also speculated in land and owned some 12,000 acres in Missouri and surrounding states.       

 

Westphalia Plantation, endangered - big house and garconniere

Eubank (Plantation), Slater - big house and slave quarters (all demolished)

For Eubank Plantation history, see Eubank Family of Saline County, Missouri

Mount Airy Plantation, razed c. 1970-80s - big house, slave quarters, and other period outbuildings

Marmaduke Plantation, demolished c. 1980 - big house, slave quarters, and other period outbuildings (54 slaves)

Pilot Hickory Plantation, demolished - big house, slave quarters, and other period outbuildings (24 slaves in 1850 when owned by John Sappington.  Gov. C. F. Jackson of Howard County inherited the estate and by 1860 he owned 48 slaves)

Brown Plantation, Arrow Rock/Hardeman area -

"Chestnut Hill" (Plantation), Thompson - big house, slave quarters, and other outbuildings

Elk Hill Farm (Napton) Plantation, demolished - big house, dance hall, slave quarters, and other period outbuildings

"Elk Hill" Plantation, built c. 1841, by William Napton.   

 

"Thomas Hall" Plantation - big house

Huston Tavern, Arrow Rock - hotel/tavern/mercantile and summer kitchen, Joseph Huston builder and owner until late 1850s, he owned 5 slaves in 1850, 10 slaves in 1860

(For more information on Huston Tavern, see http://www.mostateparks.com/arrowrock.htm)

 Dr. William Price House, Town "Villa," 1830s, Arrow Rock - big house and slave quarters (in 1850 he had 22 slaves, in 1860 built "Ridge Airy" plantation near Arrow Rock)

Land and Ayers Family farms - big house and slave quarters (all demolished)

see Land and Ayers Family History

Judge Thomas Shackelford Plantation - big house and quarters (all demolished)

 

Pike County

Walker G. Meriwether’s plantation “Aberdeen”- 1,233-acre estate with 58 slaves

John Winn Davis plantation “Ashburton” - 20 slaves

Fontaine Meriwether plantation “Springhill”- 24 slaves on a 530-acre estate

Mary C. Meriwether plantation “Sweet Canaan” -  31 slaves

Elizabeth Lewis plantation “Elmwood”- 897 acres and 24 slaves

"Elmwood" plantation (son of Elizabeth Lewis) - 850 acres and 17 slaves

"Hazlewood” plantation (son of Elizabeth Lewis) -  51 slaves on a 674-acre estate

All of these plantations were built by the tobacco planters family Lewis/Meriwether and are between Aberdeen and Hazlewood plantations at the town of Eolia, where a dry goods store, a tobacco factory and the St. John’s Episcopal Church were located to service the needs of the planter family elite.  The planters also operated private academy “Rockford”, or private school for local (white) families. 

William W. Brown, a famous Missouri slave who later wrote a book on his life as a slave, lived on a tobacco plantation about 40 miles above St. Charles, which places the plantation in the vicinity of lower rural Prairieville, Pike County.

 

MISSOURI'S LITTLE DIXIE COUNTY SLAVE POPULATIONS

Audrain County

County Slave Population: 1840 -  10%; 1850 - 13%; 1860 - 14.4%

Townships With the Largest Percentage of Slaves in 1860 (over 14%): Cuiver - 14.06%; Loutre - 17.35%; 17.45%.

 

Audrain County

County Slave Population: 1840 - 10%; 1850 - 13%; 1860 - 14.4%

Townships With the Largest Percentage of Slaves in 1860 (over 14%): Cuiver - 14.06%; Loutre - 17.35%; Salt River - 17.45%.

 

Boone County

County Slave Population: 1840 - 22.18%; 1850 - 24.5%; 1860 - 25.8%

Townships With the Largest Percentage of Slaves in 1860 (over 14%): Cedar - 25.25%; Columbia - 44.87%; Missouri - 27%; Perche - 17%; Rocheport  - 17.69%; Rocky Fork - 17%

 

Callaway County

County Slave Population: 1840 - 26.7%; 1850 - 28.3%; 1860 - 25.9%

Townships With the Largest Percentage of Slaves in 1860: Bourbon - 34.3%; Cedar - 28.8%;

Cotensansdissein - 24.9%; Dist. #18 (includes Fulton) - 23.7%; Liberty - 31.7%; Round Prairie - 23.4%

 

Carroll County

County Slave Population: 1840 - 11.%; 1850 - 11.4%; 1860 - 10.9%

Townships With the Largest Percentage of Slaves in 1860 (over 14%): Carrollton - 21%; Sugar Tree Bottom - 21.%; Wakonda - 14.7%

 

Chariton

County Slave Population: 1840 - 21.4%; 1850 - 23.7%; 1860 - 22.6%

Townships With the Largest Percentage of Slaves in 1860 (over 14%): Buffalo Lick - 29.5%; Brunswick - 24.4%; Chariton - 41.%; Keyetsville - 40.3%; Missouri - 20.3%; Prairie - 17.%; Yellow Creek - 16.6%

 

Clay County

County Slave Population: 1840 - 22.6%; 1850 - 26.5%; 1860 - 26.5%

Townships With the Largest Percentage of Slaves in 1860 (over 14%): Fishing River (includes Missouri City) - 21.%; Gallatin (includes present day Gladstone, Barry, North KC) - 26.9%; Liberty - 34.4%; Platte (includes Smithville) - 29.4%; Washington (includes Watkins Mill) - 22%

 

Cooper County

County Slave Population: 1840 - 20.6%; 1850 - 23.9%; 1860 - 21.9%

Townships With the Largest Percentage of Slaves in 1860 (over 14%): Black Water - 25.9%; Boonville - 15.8%; Clark Fork - 24.4%; Clear Creek (includes Pleasant Green) - 16.1%; Kelly - 31.1%; Lamine - 36.9%; Monitan - 14.5%; Palestine (includes Speed and Bellair) - 25.6%; Pilot Grove - 23.3%; Saline - 26.4%

 

Howard County

County Slave Population: 1840 - 28.1%; 1850 - 35%; 1860 - 36.9%

Townships With the Largest Percentage of Slaves in 1860 (over 14%): Bonnefemme - 14.8%; Chariton - 51%%; Fayette - 30.6%; Franklin - 42.7%; Glasgow - 26.2%; Monitan - 32.2%; Prairie - 36.5%; Richmond - 51%

 

Jackson County

County Slave Population: 1840 - 17.9%; 1850 - 21.2%; 1860 - 17.2%

Townships With the Largest Percentage of Slaves in 1860 (over 14%): Blue - 19.3%; Fort Osage (Sibley and Fort Osage) - 33.5%; Independence - 21.4; Sniabar - 18.2%

 

Lafayette County

County Slave Population: 1840 -  29.2%; 1850 - 33.7%; 1860 - 31.7%

Townships With the Largest Percentage of Slaves in 1860 (over 14%): Clay (Napoleon and Wellington) - 35.9%; Davis (Higginsville) - 33.7%; Dover - 43%; Freedom (Concordia) - 14.7%; Lexington - 16.9%; Middletown (Waverly) - 41.7%; Sniabar (Chapel Hill) - 21.9%; Washington - 28.7%

 

Monroe County

County Slave Population: 1840 - 17.8%; 1850 - 19.4%; 1860 - 20.4%

Townships With the Largest Percentage of Slaves in 1860 (over 14%): Clay - 20.6%; Jackson - 24.1%; Jefferson - 20.6%; Marion - 15.7%; Southfork - 20.7%; Union - 24.5%; Washington - 24.9%

 

Pike County

County Slave Population: 1840 - 23.2%; 1850 - 24.1%; 1860 - 22%

Townships With the Largest Percentage of Slaves in 1860 (over 14%): Ashley - 26.4%; Buffalo 20%; Calumet - 37.1%; Clarksville - 14.1%; Cuiver - 29.3%; Hartford - 18.3%; Peno - 18.52%; Spencer - 20.4%

 

Platte County

County Slave Population: 1840 - 9.6%; 1850 - 16.6%; 1860 - 18.1%

Townships With the Largest Percentage of Slaves in 1860 (over 14%): Carroll (Platte City) - 26.2%; Green - 24.1%; Lee (Farley) - 15%; Marshall - 21.2%; Pettis (Parkville) - 14.9%; Platte - 27.4% 

 

Ralls County

County Slave Population: 1840 - 21.3%; 1850 - 22.2%; 1860 - 20.8%

Townships With the Largest Percentage of Slaves in 1860 (over 14%): Center - 41.7%; Jasper - 17.7%; Saline - 15.7%; Salt River - 19.8%; Saverton - 16%; Spencer - 25.1%

 

Randolph County

County Slave Population: 1840 - 20%; 1850 - 22.8%; 1860 - 23%

Townships With the Largest Percentage of Slaves in 1860 (over 14%): Chariton - 18.1%; Prairie - 22.5%; Salt Spring - 24.6%; Silver Creek - 36.1%; Sugar Creek - 23.5%; Union - 15.7%

 

Ray County

County Slave Population: 1840 - 12.73%; 1850 - 14.6%; 1860 - 14.5%

Townships With the Largest Percentage of Slaves in 1860 (over 14%): Crooked River (Hardin) - 14.5%; Richmond - 27.8% 

 

Saline County

County Slave Population: 1840 - 30.72%; 1850 - 30.7%; 1860 - 33.2%

Townships With the Largest Percentage of Slaves in 1860 (over 14%): Arrow Rock - 40.2%; Black Water - 33.4%; Grand Pass - 35.6%; Jefferson - 22%; Marshall - 39.1%; Miami - 36.9%; Salt Pond - 16.6%

 

         

 

Largest 1860 Slave Populations In Missouri

1st Lafayette County - 6,374 slaves

2nd Howard County - 5,886 slaves

3rd Boone County - 5,034 slaves

4th Saline County - 4,876 slaves

5th Callaway County - 4,523 slaves

6th St. Louis County - 4,346 slaves 

7th Pike County - 4,055 slaves

8th Jackson County - 3,944 slaves

9th Cooper County - 3,800 slaves

10th Clay County - 3,455 slaves

11th Platte County - 3,313 slaves

12th Monroe County - 3,021 slaves

 

Other Little Dixie countie's slave populations remained high in 1860: Chariton 2,839; Randolph 2,619; Ray 2,047, and Ralls 1,791.  Only Buchanan, Johnson, Lincoln, Pettis, and St. Charles had populations that competed with the previously mentioned Little Dixie counties, and all of them, excluding St. Charles County, border the Little Dixie.  A few other counties along the borders of Little Dixie also held slave populations between 1,000 to 2,100 persons, while the remaining counties in Missouri had but a few hundred slaves at best.  Even as late as 1905, Missouri’s largest African-American population was still living in Little Dixie.

 

 

Program on the above material:

Little Cabins: Slave Dwelling Architecture in Missouri’s Little Dixie”

 

In 1860, 52 percent of Missouri’s 114,931 slaves lived in a seventeen county area known historically as “Little Dixie.” (Audrain, Boone, Callaway, Carroll, Clay, Chariton, Cooper, Howard, Lafayette, Jackson, Monroe, Pike, Platte, Ralls, Randolph, Ray, and Saline).  In most of these local Missouri counties and townships, blossoming slave populations varied between 20 to 45 percent.  Mirroring the slave entrenched regions of the upper South, it was in this area that Missouri’s hemp, tobacco, and cotton cultures were centered.  “Little Dixie” also maintained the highest concentration of the largest farms and plantations in Missouri, frequently encompassing 500 to several thousand acres and worked over by 15 to 30 or more slaves.  Today, the area still retains the largest inventory of Missouri’s slave quarters. 

 

Plantations or Slave Quarters to be discussed:

 

Anderson Plantation, Lafayette County, Missouri

Brown Plantation, Cass County, Missouri

Chevis Tavern, Platte County, Missouri

Greenwood & Maplewood Plantations, Boone County, Missouri

Greenwood Plantation, Howard County, Missouri

Hicklin Hearthstone Plantation, Lafayette County, Missouri

Hughes Plantation, Howard County, Missouri

Oakwood Plantation, Howard County, Missouri

Pleasant Green Plantation, Cooper County, Missouri

Prairie Park Plantation, Saline County, Missouri

Prairie View Plantation, Cooper County, Missouri

Russell/Reinhard House, Lafayette County, Missouri

Stephens House, Cooper County, Missouri

 

Program Length: 50 Minutes

Gary Fuenfhausen is an Architectural and Cultural Historian who specializes in Missouri Southern history and architecture.  He has worked for many years in the field of historic preservation in Missouri and Georgia.   

 Fuenfhausen served as an Architectural and Museum Consultant to the celebrated African American museum King-Tisdell Cottage Foundation in Savannah, Georgia.  Other Missouri museums or historic organizations for which he has held Curator or Director-level positions include the Andrew County Historical Society, Historic Kansas City Foundation, and Shoal Creek Missouri.  He has also received nominations and awards for his work and has served as a Consultant to various independent and public film productions.  His academic accomplishments include a book and articles on Little Dixie’s Cotton Culture, architecture, and travel. 

 For information on this program, contact Gary at:

 Phone - 660-837-3199

Email  - Garyfuenfh@aol.com

Mail     - P. O. Box 22, Arrow Rock, MO 65320

 

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 Copyright  2009

Research and Photographs by Gary Gene Fuenfhausen.  All published materials on this site are fully copy written and may not be used in any manner without the written consent of its owner.   

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